Many of the key principles of LEAN and SIX SIGMA can be found in this book first published in 1911 !
The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor
This book laid out the principles of scientific management and improvement of workplace efficiency.
1. Focus on improvement the process and training of workers to follow the process.
2. Management by analysis of data, hard facts and evidence ( scientific method )
3. Management to cooperate with the workers and understand the work that is being done ( now called ‘the Gemba’ )
4. Management to conduct ‘time and motion’ scientific studies to determine the most efficient way for each worker to conduct each step in the process. ( now addressed in the ‘Waste of Motion’ in the 7-Wastes, or in the Lean tool of ‘5S’ for workplace organization.)
5. Exposing the fallacy that an increase in the output of each man or each machine will result in throwing a large number of men out of work. Instead that reduced production costs can be passed on to the customer in part as reduced prices which will in turn lead to greater demand for the products.